Quantum computing is a new technology that leverages the laws of quantum physics to perform computations that are exponentially faster and more powerful than classical computers. Quantum computers can revolutionize industries and fields that require significant computing power, such as modeling financial markets, designing new effective medicines and vaccines, empowering artificial intelligence, and creating a new and secure way of communication (quantum Internet).

Quantum computing has the potential to change financial services in many ways, from enhancing cybersecurity and fraud detection to optimizing trading and portfolio management to improving customer service and natural language processing. In this article, we will explore some of the use cases and benefits of quantum computing for financial services, as well as some of the challenges and risks that need to be addressed.

**Quantum Computing for Cybersecurity and Fraud Detection**

One of the most important applications of quantum computing for financial services is cybersecurity and fraud detection. Quantum computers can crack many of the current encryption algorithms that protect mobile banking, e-commerce, fintech, digital currencies, and Internet information exchange. This poses a serious threat to financial stability and data privacy.

However, quantum computers can also provide a solution to this problem, by enabling quantum cryptography, which is a secure way of transferring quantum information across space. Quantum cryptography is based on the quantum mechanical phenomenon of entanglement, which means that two or more particles can share a quantum state and influence each other, even when they are separated by large distances. This allows for the exchange of a secret key that can encrypt messages in a way that is impossible to eavesdrop or tamper with, even by a quantum computer.

Quantum cryptography can also be combined with post-quantum cryptographic algorithms, which are classical algorithms that are resistant to quantum attacks. This can provide an extra layer of security and resilience for financial institutions.

Another application of quantum computing for cybersecurity and fraud detection is quantum machine learning (QML), which is a branch of artificial intelligence that uses quantum algorithms to learn from data. QML can enhance the performance and accuracy of fraud detection models, by exploiting the parallelism and interference of quantum states. QML can also handle large or unstructured data sets better than classical machine learning, which can help identify patterns and anomalies in financial transactions.

For example, HSBC and Quantinuum, a quantum computing company, have announced a series of exploratory projects that use QML techniques for fraud detection. They will leverage Quantinuum’s software development platform, TKET, which provides qubit routing and circuit optimization techniques for quantum algorithms.

**[Also Read: AI, ML & Quantum Computing: Joint Use Cases]**

**Quantum Computing for Trading and Portfolio Management**

Another area where quantum computing can have a significant impact is trading and portfolio management. Quantum computers can enable financial institutions to perform complex calculations and simulations faster and more accurately than classical computers, which can improve decision-making and risk management.

One of the challenges that traders and portfolio managers face is finding the optimal allocation of assets that maximizes returns while minimizing risk. This is known as the portfolio optimization problem, which is a type of optimization problem that involves finding the best solution among many possible ones.

Optimization problems are hard to solve with classical computers because they require exploring a large number of variables and constraints. However, quantum computers can solve optimization problems more efficiently, by using quantum algorithms such as Grover’s algorithm or quantum annealing.

Grover’s algorithm is a quantum algorithm that can find a target element in an unsorted database with quadratic speedup over classical algorithms. Quantum annealing is a quantum technique that uses quantum fluctuations to escape local minima and find the global minimum of a cost function.

Quantum algorithms for optimization can help traders and portfolio managers find the optimal portfolio allocation in real-time, considering market conditions, risk factors, liquidity constraints, transaction costs, and other parameters. This can enhance their performance and profitability.

For example, BBVA and Multiverse Computing, a quantum software company, have collaborated on a project that uses quantum annealing to optimize currency portfolios. They have shown that their approach can reduce portfolio risk by 2% compared to classical methods.

**Quantum Computing for Customer Service and Natural Language Processing**

A third domain where quantum computing can benefit financial services is customer service and natural language processing (NLP). NLP is a field of artificial intelligence that deals with the interaction between human language and computers. NLP can enable financial institutions to provide better customer service, by understanding and responding to customer queries, requests, and feedback in natural language.

NLP involves various tasks, such as speech recognition, sentiment analysis, text summarization, machine translation, and question answering. These tasks can be challenging for classical computers because they require processing large amounts of linguistic data and capturing the nuances and ambiguities of human language.

Quantum computers can improve NLP tasks, by using quantum algorithms that can process natural language data faster and more accurately than classical algorithms. Quantum algorithms can also leverage quantum phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, which can help capture the semantic and contextual relationships between words and sentences.

For example, HSBC and Quantinuum have also announced a project that explores the potential benefits of quantum natural language processing (QNLP) for HSBC’s business. They will use QNLP techniques to analyze customer feedback and sentiment, as well as to generate natural language responses to customer queries.

**Conclusion**

Quantum computing is a disruptive technology that will transform financial services by 2027. Quantum computers can provide significant advantages over classical computers in terms of speed, power, and accuracy, which can enable financial institutions to improve their cybersecurity, fraud detection, trading optimization, portfolio management, customer service, and natural language processing.

However, quantum computing also poses some challenges and risks that need to be addressed. These include the availability and scalability of quantum hardware, the development and validation of quantum software and algorithms, the transition and compatibility of quantum cryptography with classical cryptography, the ethical and regulatory implications of quantum computing, and the potential threats from quantum adversaries.

Financial institutions that want to leverage quantum computing should start preparing now, by assessing their current and future needs and opportunities, building their quantum capabilities and skills, collaborating with quantum experts and partners, and experimenting with quantum solutions. By doing so, they can gain a competitive edge in the quantum era.

**FAQs On Quantum Computing, Financial Services Answered Here:**

**What is the use of quantum computing in financial services?**

Quantum computing is the use of quantum physics principles to perform computations that are exponentially faster and more powerful than classical computers.

**Quantum computing can be used for various purposes in financial services, such as:**

Enhancing cybersecurity and fraud detection by using quantum cryptography and quantum machine learning

Optimizing trading and portfolio management by using quantum algorithms for complex calculations and simulations

Improving customer service and natural language processing by using quantum algorithms for speech recognition, sentiment analysis, text summarization, machine translation, and question-answering.

**How could quantum computing benefit of financial services industry?**

**Quantum computing could benefit the financial services industry by:**

Providing faster and more accurate solutions for complex problems that require significant computing power

Enabling new capabilities and opportunities that are not possible with classical computers

Improving decision-making and risk management by incorporating more data and parameters

Enhancing customer satisfaction and loyalty by providing better service and communication

Creating a competitive advantage and differentiation in a commoditized environment.

### What is the future of quantum computing in finance?

The future of quantum computing in finance is promising but uncertain. Quantum computing is still in its early stages of development and faces many technical and practical challenges. However, it also has enormous potential to transform finance by 2024. Some of the possible scenarios for the future of quantum computing in finance are:

**Quantum supremacy:**

Quantum computers achieve a clear advantage over classical computers for certain tasks or applications

**Quantum advantage:**

Quantum computers provide a significant improvement over classical computers for certain tasks or applications

**Quantum hybrid:**

Quantum computers work together with classical computers to complement each other’s strengths

**Quantum niche:**

Quantum computers are used for specific or specialized tasks or applications

**Quantum failure:**

Quantum computers fail to deliver on their promises or expectations.

**How could Quantum computing benefit the financial services industry?**

**Quantum computing could benefit the financial services industry by:**

Providing faster and more accurate solutions for complex problems that require significant computing power

Enabling new capabilities and opportunities that are not possible with classical computers

Improving decision-making and risk management by incorporating more data and parameters

Enhancing customer satisfaction and loyalty by providing better service and communication

Creating a competitive advantage and differentiation in a commoditized environment.

**Why is quantum computing useful for optimization problems?**

Quantum computing is useful for optimization problems because it can solve them more efficiently than classical computers. Optimization problems involve finding the best solution among many possible ones, subject to some constraints. For example, finding the optimal portfolio allocation that maximizes returns while minimizing risk.

Optimization problems are hard to solve with classical computers because they require exploring a large number of variables and constraints. However, quantum computers can solve optimization problems faster by using quantum algorithms such as Grover’s algorithm or quantum annealing.

Grover’s algorithm is a quantum algorithm that can find a target element in an unsorted database with quadratic speedup over classical algorithms. Quantum annealing is a quantum technique that uses quantum fluctuations to escape local minima and find the global minimum of a cost function.

Quantum algorithms for optimization can help traders and portfolio managers find the optimal portfolio allocation in real time, taking into account market conditions, risk factors, liquidity constraints, transaction costs, and other parameters. This can enhance their performance and profitability.

**Quantum financial system?**

Quantum financial system is a term that refers to the potential impact of quantum computing on the global financial system. Quantum computing can create both opportunities and challenges for the financial system, such as:

Improving the efficiency and security of financial transactions and communications by using quantum cryptography and quantum Internet

Enhancing the accuracy and reliability of financial models and forecasts by using quantum algorithms and quantum machine learning

Increasing the complexity and diversity of financial products and services by using quantum optimization and quantum simulation

Disrupting the existing financial infrastructure and regulations by creating new paradigms and standards for quantum finance

Threatening the stability and integrity of the financial system by exposing vulnerabilities and risks from quantum attacks

Quantum financial system is not a fixed or predetermined outcome, but rather a dynamic and evolving process that depends on the development and adoption of quantum computing, as well as the response and adaptation of the financial stakeholders.

**Quantum algorithms for finance?**

**Quantum algorithms for finance are quantum algorithms that can be used for various purposes in finance, such as:**

**Quantum cryptography:**

Quantum algorithms that can generate, distribute, and verify secret keys for secure communication and encryption

**Quantum machine learning:**

**Quantum algorithms:**

That can learn from data and perform tasks such as classification, regression, clustering, anomaly detection, etc.

##### Quantum optimization:

Quantum algorithms that can find the optimal solution among many possible ones, subject to some constraints

**Quantum simulation:**

Quantum algorithms that can simulate complex systems or phenomena, such as financial markets, economic models, etc.

##### Quantum Natural Language Processing:

Quantum algorithms can process natural language data and perform tasks such as speech recognition, sentiment analysis, text summarization, machine translation, question answering, etc.

**Quantum Algorithms for Finance:**

can provide significant advantages over classical algorithms in terms of speed, power, accuracy, and capability. However, they also require quantum hardware and software that are still in their infancy and face many technical and practical challenges.

**Quantum Banking System 2024?**

Quantum banking system 2024 is a hypothetical scenario that imagines how quantum computing could affect the banking industry by 2024. Some of the possible features of the quantum banking system 2024 are:

**Quantum Banks:**

Banks that use quantum computers to provide faster, cheaper, and more secure services to their customers and partners

**Quantum Payments:**

Payments that use quantum cryptography and quantum Internet to ensure security, privacy, and efficiency

**Quantum Trading:**

Trading that uses quantum algorithms and quantum machine learning to optimize strategies, portfolios, and risk management

**Quantum Fraud Detection:**

Fraud detection that uses quantum machine learning and quantum natural language processing to identify patterns and anomalies in transactions and customer feedback

**Quantum customer service:**

Customer service uses quantum natural language processing to understand and respond to customer queries, requests, and feedback in natural language.

Quantum banking system 2024 is not a realistic or probable scenario, but rather a speculative or visionary one. It assumes that quantum computing will achieve significant breakthroughs and adoption by 2024, which is unlikely given the current state of the technology.

However, it also illustrates some of the potential benefits and challenges of quantum computing for banking.

**HSBC quantum?**

HSBC quantum is a term that refers to the initiatives and projects that HSBC, a London-headquartered bank and financial services group, is undertaking to explore the use cases of quantum computing for its business. HSBC is one of the leading banks in the field of quantum computing, having partnered with several quantum experts and companies.

**Some of the HSBC quantum projects are:**

**HSBC and Quantum:**

A series of exploratory projects that exploit the potential benefits of quantum computing for banking with specific projects in cybersecurity, fraud detection, and natural language processing.

#### HSBC and IBM:

A collaboration to develop new ways to use data analytics across its global businesses.

**HSBC UK Centre of Excellence for Quantum**

**Computing:**

A research center that aims to advance the understanding of how quantum computing can be applied to solve real-world problems in finance.

HSBC quantum demonstrates HSBC’s commitment to innovation and digital transformation. By investing in quantum computing research and development, HSBC hopes to gain a competitive edge in the future of finance.

**World Economic Forum Quantum Computing?**

World Economic Forum (WEF) quantum computing is a term that refers to the activities and initiatives that WEF, an international organization for public-private cooperation, is undertaking to promote and support the development and adoption of quantum computing. WEF recognizes quantum computing as one of the key emerging technologies that can shape the future of the world.

**Some of the WEF quantum computing activities and initiatives are:**

**Global Future Council on Quantum Computing:**

A network of experts and leaders that provides strategic insights and recommendations on how to harness the potential of quantum computing for a positive impact.

**Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution:**

A network of hubs that collaborate with governments, businesses, civil society, and experts to co-design and pilot innovative approaches to the policy and governance of quantum computing and other emerging technologies.

**Quantum Computing Summit:**

An annual event that brings together quantum experts, leaders, and stakeholders to discuss the opportunities and challenges of quantum computing.

WEF quantum computing aims to foster a global dialogue and collaboration on quantum computing, as well as to address the ethical, social, and economic implications of the technology. By doing so, WEF hopes to contribute to the development of a more inclusive, sustainable, and resilient world.

**What is the Shor’s algorithm?**

The quantum algorithm for finding the prime factors of an integer is Shor’s algorithm. It was crafted in 1994 by Peter Short the American mathematician.

**Here are some key points about Shor’s algorithm:**

#### Quantum Speedup:

Shor’s algorithm is one of the few known quantum algorithms with compelling potential applications and strong evidence of super polynomial speedup compared to the best-known classical (that is, non-quantum) algorithms.

**Factoring Problem:**

Shor’s algorithm is usually called the factoring algorithm, but it can also referred to as the discrete logarithm problem and the period-finding problem. All these three are instances of the hidden subgroup problem.

**Polynomial Time:**

On a quantum computer, Shor’s algorithm runs in polynomial time, for factoring an integer. This is significantly & comparatively faster than the perceived and most efficient known classical factoring algorithm, the general number field sieve, which is also said to work in sub-exponential time.

**Impact on Cryptography:**

Shor’s algorithm could be used to break public-key cryptography schemes if a quantum computer with a sufficient number of qubits could operate without getting affected by quantum noise and other quantum-decoherence phenomena.

**Algorithm Steps:**

Choose any random number let’s say r, in a way that r < N so that they are co-primes of each other.

A quantum computer is used to determine the unknown period p of the function fr, N (x) = rx mod N.

If p happens to be an odd integer, then return to Step 1. Otherwise, move to the next step.

Compute d = gcd (rp/2-1, N). The answer required is ‘d’.

Please note that factoring numbers of practical significance requires far more qubits than are available shortly. Another concern is that noise in quantum circuits may undermine results, requiring additional qubits for quantum error correction.

**What is the Google Shor’s algorithm?**

Google’s Quantum AI team has created a pedagogical demonstration of Shor’s algorithm using Cirq, an open-source Python library for quantum computing. This demonstration is a modified and expanded version of a Cirq example.

The Google version of Shor’s algorithm, like the original, is designed to factorize numbers using a quantum computer. It consists of two parts:

Conversion of the problem of factorizing to the problem of finding the period: This part can be implemented with classical means.

Finding the period or Quantum period finding using the Quantum Fourier Transform: This part is responsible for quantum speedup and utilizes quantum parallelism.

The Google demonstration includes sections on classical order finding, quantum order finding, quantum arithmetic gates in Cirq, modular exponential arithmetic gate, using the modular exponential gate in a circuit, and classical post-processing.

You can view this demonstration on the QuantumAI website, run it in Google Colab, view the source on GitHub, or download the notebook. Please note that to run this demonstration, you would need to install Cirq.

This demonstration is intended to help users understand how Shor’s algorithm works on a quantum computer and how it can be implemented using Cirq. However, it’s important to note that as of now, large-scale quantum computers capable of running Shor’s algorithm efficiently do not yet exist. Building them is a significant challenge due to issues like quantum decoherence and error correction.

**What does Shor’s algorithm break?**

Shor’s algorithm, if implemented on a sufficiently large quantum computer, could potentially break public-key cryptography schemes.

Public-key cryptography, also referred to as asymmetric cryptography, is a system using pairs of keys: public keys (which can be disseminated widely) and private keys (which are exclusively known to the owner). The process of generation of such keys is dependent upon cryptographic algorithms based on mathematical problems to generate one-way functions.

The most common public key cryptosystems are RSA, ElGamal, and ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography). These systems are widely used for secure data transmission, especially over the Internet. They rely on the fact that, with classical computers, factoring large numbers or solving discrete logarithm problems takes a very long time.

However, Shor’s algorithm can solve these problems in polynomial time on a quantum computer, thus threatening the security of these cryptosystems. If large-scale quantum computers become a reality, they could decrypt any internet communication that uses RSA encryption or similar encryption based on factoring large numbers or solving discrete logarithm problems.

It’s important to note that this doesn’t mean all encryption would be broken. Symmetric key cryptography, for example, would still require a brute-force search to break even with a quantum computer. Moreover, new quantum-resistant algorithms are being developed, which are believed to be secure against quantum computers. These are often referred to as post-quantum cryptography.

Please note that as of now, large-scale quantum computers capable of running Shor’s algorithm efficiently do not yet exist, and building them is a significant challenge due to issues like quantum decoherence and error correction. So, the threat to current cryptographic systems is theoretical at this point.

**How many qubits are needed for Shor’s algorithm?**

The number of qubits required to run Shor’s algorithm depends on the size of the number you want to factor.

For a bit-size of n = 1,024, it would work out to be 2050 logical qubits.

A quantum computer with 20 million qubits would be required to factor a security-standard 2,048-bit number (about 600 digits long)

In general, Shor’s algorithm at the “Period-finding subroutine” uses two registers, possibly as big as 2n + 1 where n is the number of bits needed to represent the number to factor. In total, 4n + 2 qubits are required to run Shor’s algorithm.

Please note that these are logical qubits. Due to quantum error correction, each logical qubit may require a large number of physical qubits. The exact number can vary depending on the specific error correction scheme used and the quality of the physical qubits.

Also, keep in mind that these are theoretical estimates. The actual number of qubits needed could be higher due to practical considerations and overheads in the implementation of the algorithm on a real quantum computer. As of now, large-scale quantum computers capable of running Shor’s algorithm efficiently do not yet exist. Building them is a significant challenge due to issues like quantum decoherence and error correction.

**Additional Resources**

**Applying Quantum Computing And AI Automation In Finance, Banking, & Blockchain**